6 breath-taking facts about asthma and the menstrual cycle…

Of all menstrual cycle-related health issues, asthma really ought to be the best known. And yet, very few asthmatics are aware of how their cycle can affect them. Clinicians may also underestimate the impact of the menstrual cycle or hormonal medications on asthma symptoms.

By sharing these facts, I hope to raise awareness about what is known about the relationship between asthma and sex hormones (specifically, oestrogens, progesterone, and testosterone), and therefore, the importance of tracking asthma symptoms throughout the menstrual cycle, or in relation to taking hormonal medication.

1The incidence of asthma is massively affected by puberty. Considerable evidence suggests that asthma is more common in pre-pubescent boys compared to girls, but following puberty, a switch occurs, and asthma becomes more prevalent, and severe, in females.

For example, using 2012 health data from the US [fig 1], we can clearly see that nearly twice as many young males than females are affected up to age 14, then, after puberty, this pattern reverses. This sudden change in prevalence is likely linked to immunological and hormonal factors, although, the exact cause is not yet known.


2Asthma symptoms can worsen at certain points during the menstrual cycle. Research has found that the hormonal changes experienced at ovulation (a rise, then drop in oestrogen levels), and around menstruation (a drop in progesterone levels), can act as ‘triggers’ for attacks in some people. So, tracking your symptoms and identifying any pattern can help you to take preventative measures, reducing the likelihood, or severity, of an attack.

N.B. If you are asthmatic and suffer from period pain, be careful about which painkiller you take. Paracetamol is usually safe, but aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory tablets (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (e.g. Nurofen) may trigger an asthma attack in a small number of people.


3Irregular menstrual cycles may be linked to asthma, and allergies. A postal questionnaire survey of over 8000 Northern European female people aged 25–42 found that those with irregular cycles were about 50% more likely to have asthma symptoms and about 30% more likely to report hay fever, than those who said they had regular periods. N.B. The increase in risk was not explained by asthma medication (corticosteroids), which can also influence levels of sex hormones.


4Times of hormonal change can affect asthma symptoms.

For example, approximately a third of pregnant people with asthma will experience worsening of their symptoms, a third will see improvement of their symptoms, and a third will see no change.pregnant-women-asthma

Interestingly, some research suggests that pregnant asthmatics carrying female foetuses might be more susceptible to severe asthma (it is speculated that perhaps this may be related to a spill over of foetal sex hormone into the maternal circulation).

Around the menopause and perimenopause (the time leading up to the menopause), some people find that their symptoms get worse and some even develop asthma for the first time.

Testosterone acts as an anti-inflammatory, which reduces asthma symptoms in men until middle age, when their higher testosterone levels fall.


5Female humans are more likely to develop asthma if they are obese, but not males. A Canadian longitudinal study, involving over nine thousand people, looked at the relationship between BMI and asthma. The authors concluded that obesity was related to development of asthma in females, but not in males.

This is likely due to the interaction between testosterone and oestrogen with insulin, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. However, it is known that weight loss can significantly alleviate asthma symptoms.

6Asthma symptoms are affected by hormonal medication.

Contraceptive medications can cause asthma, or help improve asthma symptoms, depending on the individual. This is indicative of the complex nature of the relationship between sex hormones and asthma.

For example, in my case, it took over two years and several unnecessary (and expensive) lung function tests, before a chance encounter with an expert in menstrual cycle-related health, revealed that the cause of my sudden-onset exercise-induced asthma was, in fact, my contraceptive pill. The same type of pill that I had taken for several years previously, without experiencing any asthma symptoms!


Quincy M.E.: “I think I’ve found the cause of your asthma…”

Research has shown that HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy), especially oestrogen-only, medication can be linked to an increased risk of developing asthma, as well as a worsening of asthma symptoms, in menopausal women.

There is still very little research available on the impact of HRT on asthma in transgender people. However, there is some anecdotal evidence that suggests (oestrogen-based) HRT medication may affect asthma and allergy symptoms, in either positive or negative ways, depending on the individual.


For expert support and advice, please visit Asthma UK’s website: https://www.asthma.org.uk/advice/manage-your-asthma/

Categories: No pain, Periods with a difference, Underlying conditions and What's normal?.


  1. Kelli

    I am a 50 year old woman who began HRT three months ago. Shortly after I began noticing asthma symptoms while exercising. I’ve never had asthma symptoms before now. While researching causes of adult onset asthma, I found this article. My doctor had not considered that the two could be related. I’m eager to show her this research.

  2. Kelli

    I am a 50 year old woman who began HRT three months ago. Shortly after I began noticing asthma symptoms while exercising. I’ve never had asthma symptoms before now. While researching causes of adult onset asthma, I found this article. My doctor had not considered that the two could be related. I’m eager to show her this research.

    • SallyMM1

      Thanks for your comment. Yes, the link between synthetic and natural oestrogens and asthma is underestimated- and not really taught in medicine. I’m sure your doctor will appreciate a quick read of the referenced material from this blog. Good luck finding a solution!

  3. Cher

    I’m a 52 year old woman who has never had exercise induced asthma or any asthma until a year ago. I was active and in great shape. I’m still going for walks but nowhere near as strenuous as they used to be. I don’t want to rely on a bunch of inhalers. Makes me feel hopeless and sad. I don’t want asthma. I still have my period so I’m in peri menopause. I notice the symptoms are worse when I’m mid cycle and when I eat high histamine foods. I’ve incorporated foods that are also low inflammation. All of this helps, I think, but it’s not gone. I’m hoping this will go away once my hormones level out. Has anyone experienced something similar and did it go away?

    • SallyMM1

      Hello Cher, thanks for your comment. I also developed asthma as an adult (in my late 30’s)- in my case it was the contraceptive pill that seemed to trigger it- since it improved a lot once I came off the pill- but I still have very mild asthma. I’m pleased you have noticed a difference with trying the low inflammation diet. I would also recommend using the ‘preventative’ asthma medication (usually the brown inhaler in the UK) since this can significantly reduce asthma symptoms over time… I know it’s a pain but it’s worth doing for a few months to see if it improves your breathing (meaning that you can take it less frequently, if at all, after a while). It is difficult to say if the symptoms will disappear entirely, but I do know that it was possible for me to get back into cardiovascular activities just by using the asthma inhalers and avoiding inflammatory foods. Good luck!

  4. Emma

    Hello Cher, I found your comment and wanted to reply. I was 48 when I was diagnosed last year with Late Onset Adult Eosinophilic Asthma with post nasal drip (this bit I think I’ve had for years just undiagnosed my GP’s) and I was peri-menopausal never had asthma fit, healthy and went to the gym. I now struggle to breathe have had 1 asthma attack and it’s ruined my life I now do no exercise and it’s elevated my platelets taking all the medication. I’m a mess basically I’m not overweight I weigh 9 stone. I wanted to take HRT then I’ve also read that this can make my asthma worse double whammy. So I have no female hormones I don’t even feel like a woman anymore if you get my drift so it’s not helping my marriage…I’m now in Menopause no periods and don’t feel like a woman at all it’s awful and on top of that is this asthma…

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